The thyroid gland is a small gland in the neck that produces endocrine hormones called thyroid hormones. A number of diseases can affect the thyroid include hypothyroidism (under-active thyroid) such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, hyperthyroidism (over-active thyroid) such as Graves’ Disease, and thyroid cancer. A swollen thyroid gland causes a swelling in the neck called a goiter. A deficiency of iodine in the diet can cause iodine deficiency that may affect the thyroid, although this is uncommon in the developed world. The thyroid gland is also related to the parathyroid glands.
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